Positivism assumes a deterministic nature to crime and that there lies within, a causation which is beyond the individuals control. During the mid-eighteenth century, social philosopher’s argued a rational approach to punish criminals. In contrast to the classical school, which assumes that criminal acts are the product of free choice and rational calculation, the positivist sees the root causes of crime in factors outside the control of the offender. Positivist theorists will then be identified and the theory will be discussed, outlining the main thesis and beliefs of both of the theories. Think about these two cases as you read about classical and positivist thought about human nature, punishment, and deterrence in this chapter. The Classical (Beccaria) vs The Positivist (Lombroso) School of Criminology Comparing and Contrasting two theoretical thinkers What is Criminology? Positivist Criminology 1800s onwards. Through understanding, the reasons a person commits a crime, one can come up with ways to prevent and control crime. The comparison between the classical school and the positivist one appears simple at first. View of human behaviour Focuses on the act, not the actor 1. Classical Criminology 1500s-1700s. The classical school of criminology was invented in the eighteenth century during the enlightenment era (White et al., 2008). The essay will first look at the history of the Classical Theory looking at Beccaria and Benthams classical school of criminology and its effects in a brief section. One of the two major schools of criminology. y The Classical Scholars Modern criminology is the product of two main schools of thought: the classical school originating in the 18th century and the positivist school originating in the 19th century. Classical School vs. Positivist School of Criminology The Classical School of Criminology is premised on the theory that people have free will in formulating decisions, and that punishment is capable of deterring crime, so long as it is carried out without delay and is appropriate and in proportion to the crime committed. (Walters & Bradley, 2005) states that nasty punishments which occurred in Europe were out-shadowed by the introduction of this idea because it recognized an unexpected civil change, and hence providing an important explanation for the criminal code in western civilizations. The classical and positivist approaches to criminological theory were both highly influential in their definition of and approach to dealing with crime and criminal punishment. Criminology is the scientific study of criminal behavior and society’s reaction to law violations and violaters (Siegel, 2003). People are hedonistic, they act out of self- interest 4. People are rational and calculated 3. Classical and Positivist Criminology ATS1281 Understanding Crime. People have free will 2. Classical School vs. Positivist School of Criminology The Classical School of Criminology is premised on the theory that people have free will in formulating decisions, and that punishment is capable of deterring crime, so long as it is carried out without delay and is appropriate and in proportion to the crime committed. Classicism assumes the free will of individuals and concentrates heavily on the punishment of crime. Classical and neoclassical schools of criminology differ in theory and approaches to the justice system. Classical Vs. Positivist Criminology In the mid-eighteenth century, social philosophers started arguing for a more rational approach to criminal punishment. Classical Theory vs Positivist Theory The classical and positivist approaches to criminology theory were both highly influential in their definition of dealing with criminal punishment. 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